Hyoscyamine

((−)-atropine, (−)-hyoscyamine, (S)-(−)-hyoscyamine, (S)-atropine, Daturine, Duboisine, Hyocyamine, L-Atropine, L-Hyopscyamine, L-Hyoscamine, L-Hyoscyamine, L-Tropine Tropate)

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Hyoscyamine is a chemical compound, a tropane alkaloid it is the levo-isomer to atropine. It is a secondary metabolite of some plants, particularly henbane (Hyoscamus niger.) Hyoscyamine is used to provide symptomatic relief to various gastrointestinal disorders including spasms, peptic ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome, pancreatitis, colic and cystitis. It has also been used to relieve some heart problems, control some of the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, as well as for control of respiratory secretions in end of life care.
Indication: 
For treatment of bladder spasms, peptic ulcer disease, diverticulitis, colic, irritable bowel syndrome, cystitis, and pancreatitis. Also used to treat certain heart conditions, to control the symptoms of Parkinson's disease and rhinitis.
Mechanism of Action: 
Hyoscyamine competes favorably with acetylcholine for binding at muscarinic receptors in the salivary, bronchial, and sweat glands as well as in the eye, heart, and gastrointestinal tract. The actions of hyoscyamine result in a reduction in salivary, bronchial, gastric and sweat gland secretions, mydriasis, cycloplegia, change in heart rate, contraction of the bladder detrusor muscle and of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and decreased gastrointestinal motility.
Pharmacology: 
L-Hyoscyamine, the active optical isomer of atropine (dl-hyoscyamine), is a tertiary amine anticholinergic gastrointestinal agent.
Biotransformation: 
Hepatic
Protein Binding: 
50%
Absorption: 
Absorbed totally and completely by sublingual administration as well as oral administration.
Half Life: 
2-3.5 hours
Drug interactions: 
Possible antagonism of action
Possible antagonism of action
The anticholinergic increases the risk of psychosis and tardive dyskinesia
Possible antagonism of action
The therapeutic effects of the central acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, Tacrine, and/or the anticholinergic, Hyoscyamine, may be reduced due to antagonism. The interaction may be beneficial when the anticholinergic action is a side effect. Monitor for decreased efficacy of both agents.
Trimethobenzamide and Hyoscyamine, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhance their adverse/toxic effects. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic effects.
Triprolidine and Hyoscyamine, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhance their adverse/toxic effects. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic effects.
Trospium and Hyoscyamine, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhanced adverse/toxic effects. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic effects.
Food interactions: 
  • Take 30 minutes before meals, and at bedtime.
Toxicity: 
Symptoms of overdose include headache, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, dilated pupils, hot dry skin, dizziness, dryness of the mouth, difficulty in swallowing, and CNS stimulation. LD50=mg/kg(orally in rat)
Affected organisms: 
Type: 
Group: 
Experimental properties: 
Water Solubility:
3560 mg/L (at 20 °C)
Melting Point:
108.5 °C
logP:
1.8
logS:
-1.91
pKa:
11.7
Prices: 
Levsin 0.125 mg tablet
tablet
$1.08
Symax-sl 0.125 mg tablet sl
tablet
$1.17
Symax fastabs 0.125 mg tablet
tablet
$1.21
Levsin/SL 0.125 mg Sublingual Tabs
tab
$1.24
Symax-sr 0.375 mg tablet
tablet
$1.40
Levbid 0.375 mg tablet sa
tablet
$1.44
Hyoscyamine Sulfate CR 0.375 mg 12 Hour tablet
tablet
$1.66
Levbid er 0.375 mg tablet
tablet
$2.09
Levbid 0.375 mg 12 Hour tablet
tablet
$2.12
Symax duotab
tablet
$2.40
Symax-SL 0.125 mg Sublingual Tabs
tab
$3.29
Symax Duotab 0.375 mg Controlled Release Tabs
tab
$3.73
Hyoscyamine sulfate powder
g
$25.69
Levsin 0.5 mg/ml ampul
ml
$27.33
Levsin 0.125 mg/ml Solution 15ml Bottle
bottle
$49.09
Anaspaz 0.125 mg tablet sl
tablet
$0.26
Levsin 0.125 mg/5ml Elixir
ml
$0.29
Anaspaz 0.125 mg Dispersible Tablet
dispersible tablet
$0.36
Hyoscyamine sul 0.15 mg tablet sl
tablet
$0.39
Hyoscyamine 0.125 mg tablet sl
tablet
$0.53
Hyoscyamine su 0.125 mg tablet
tablet
$0.64
Hyoscyamine sulf 0.125 mg tablet
tablet
$0.79
Hyoscyamine Sulfate 0.125 mg Dispersible Tablet
dispersible tablet
$0.83
Hyomax-sl 0.125 mg tablet sl
tablet
$0.86
Hyoscyamine Sulfate 0.125 mg Sublingual Tabs
tab
$0.88
Nulev 0.125 mg tablet
tablet
$0.91
Hyoscyamine Sulfate 0.125 mg tablet
tablet
$0.93
Levsin-sl 0.125 mg tablet sl
tablet
$0.97
Cas Number: 
101-31-5
External identifiers: 
ChEBI:
17486
Drugs Product Database (DPD):
125857
PharmGKB:
PA164776844